The history of the land of Israel goes back thousands of years.
Here are some of the points mentioned in the timeline:
circa 1000 BCE:
The Jewish Kingdoms
The kingdoms of king David and his son: Solomon.
Solomon is considered the builder of the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem.
After Solomon’s death in 931 BCE the kingdom was divided into Judea in the south and Israel in the north.
The Assyrian Conquest
The Assyrians, a powerful people from northern Mesopotamia
(today northern Iraq), invade the northern Kingdom of Israel and deport the Jews to other parts of the Assyrian Empire.
The Babylonian Exile
After the fall of the Assyrian Empire the Babylonian king, Nebuchadnezzar II, conquers Jerusalem. The most influential leaders of Judea are deported to Babylon (in southern Mesopotamia, what is known today as Iraq). The first Jewish temple in Jerusalem is destroyed.
The Second Temple is Rebuilt (535-516)
Soon after returning to their homeland, the decedents of the exiled Jews begin construction of the second temple.
Alexander the Great conquers the land from the Persians. After his death, his empire breaks into several Kingdoms. The newly formed Ptolemaic Kingdom based out of Egypt rules what was the Jewish Kingdom.
The Maccabean Revolt
In 168 BCE, the land is conquered by another Hellenistic state – the Seleucids. During the waning years of the Hellenistic empires, Antiochus IV issues harsh decrees forbidding Jewish religious practices, which sparks a rebellion led by the Maccabee family (164 BCE) and which sees the people gain independence. The Maccabees establish the Hasmonean dynasty (140 BCE) which rules the land for the next 77 years.
Under the leadership of Pompey, Rome conquers the Hasmonean Kingdom. Under their rule cities, aqueducts, roads and other major projects are constructed, many remain to this day.